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< id="formTabButtonList4204" class="title_list formTabButtonYList formTabButtonYList4204">< id="formTabButton4206" class="item J_tabItemContextMenuTrigger tab_title tab_anim formTabButton formTabButtonHover">< class="formTabLeft formTabLeftHover"> < class="formTabMiddle formTabMiddleHover">圆柱齿轮副的优化 < class="formTabRight formTabRightHover"> < class="tabItemTriangle">< class="tabItemSep">< class="commonTabItemSep">< id="formTabButton4224" class="item J_tabItemContextMenuTrigger tab_title tab_anim formTabButton">< class="formTabLeft"> < class="formTabMiddle">系统化设计 < class="formTabRight"> < class="tabItemTriangle">< class="tabItemSep">< class="commonTabItemSep">< id="formTabButton4237" class="item J_tabItemContextMenuTrigger tab_title tab_anim formTabButton">< class="formTabLeft"> < class="formTabMiddle">系统计算(考虑箱体外壳) < class="formTabRight"> < class="tabItemTriangle">< class="tabItemSep">< class="commonTabItemSep">< id="formTabButton4261" class="item J_tabItemContextMenuTrigger tab_title tab_anim formTabButton">< class="formTabLeft"> < class="formTabMiddle">齿面螺旋线优化 < class="formTabRight"> < class="tabItemTriangle"> < class="tabYListPlaceholder">
< id="formTabContent4204" class="tab_list formTabContent column">< id="formTabCntId4206" styleId="87" class="item tab_item formTabCntId formTabCntIdHover">< id='module4206' _modulestyle='87' _moduleid='4206' class='form form4206 formStyle87 formInTab fk-formPack ' _createFrom='1' style='' _side='0' > < class='formBanner formBanner4206 f-packFormBanner J_packFormBanner ' style=''> < class='left left4206'> < class='center center4206' valign='top'> < class='formBannerTitle formBannerTitle4206'> < class='titleCenter titleCenter4206' valign='top'> < class='titleText titleText4206'>圆柱齿轮副的优化 < class='right right4206'> < class='J_packContent f-packContent f-packContent4206 elemZone elemZoneModule' id='fk-packContent4206'>< class='fk-elemZoneBg J_zoneContentBg elemZoneBg f-packContentBg f-packContentBg4206'> < id='module4205' _modulestyle='86' _moduleid='4205' class='form form4205 formStyle86 siteEditor ' style='position:absolute;top:40px;left:62px;width:521px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4205'>< class='fk-editor simpleText fk-editor-break-word '>优化一圆柱齿轮副的传动效率和胶合承载能力 < id='module4207' _modulestyle='86' _moduleid='4207' class='form form4207 formStyle86 siteEditor ' style='position:absolute;top:85px;left:62px;width:837px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4207'>< class='fk-editor simpleText fk-editor-break-word '>有一圆柱齿轮副,其传动效率和胶合承载能力有待提高。其中几何尺寸基本保持不变,刀具、润滑剂及材料则不做任何变动。 图 1 为原齿轮副按照 ISO 6336 方法 B 计算结果: < id='module4208' _modulestyle='86' _moduleid='4208' class='form form4208 formStyle86 siteEditor ' style='position:absolute;top:662px;left:423px;width:315px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4208'>< class='fk-editor simpleText fk-editor-break-word '>图 1 < id='module4209' _modulestyle='79' _moduleid='4209' class='form form4209 formStyle79' style='position:absolute;top:153px;left:117px;width:721px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4209'>< class='floatImg floatImg_J floatImg_J_special'> < class='floatImgWrap'>< class='forMargin'> < id='module4210' _modulestyle='86' _moduleid='4210' class='form form4210 formStyle86 siteEditor ' style='position:absolute;top:710px;left:65px;width:867px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4210'>< class='fk-editor simpleText fk-editor-break-word '>很明显,齿根安全系数大大超过给定最小安全系数 SFmin = 1.3 。反之,齿面安全系数只勉强超过 1.0 (SHmin = 1.1) ,而胶合安全系数(积分温度)值 1.243 及胶合安全系数(闪温) 值 2.386明显低于其相应给定最小安全系数值 SInt_min = 2.0 及 SBlitz_min = 3.0。
该案例将演示用两种途径优化胶合承载能力。途径 1 为手动优化,因 TBK”随改随算”自动计算特性,操作起来非常简便。这里将法向模数逐步从 mn = 6 mm 减至 mn = 3.5 mm,同时将齿数 z1 及 z2 相应增大,以保持传动比不变,而工作中心距也差不多保留在原值左右。接下去,稍稍增大螺旋角及齿宽。另外按均衡滑动率准则优化两齿轮变位系数的分配。 最后将齿轮 1 做了一个齿顶倒圆角。
图 2 为优化后计算结果。 可以看出因模数减小齿根安全系数相应减小。相对而言,齿面安全系数提高,稍大于 1.1,而胶合安全系数(积分温度)值为 1.966,仅仅稍稍低于给定值SInt_min = 2.0,而胶合安全系数(闪温) 值 4.11 明显超过给定值 SBlitz_min = 3.0。
< id='module4211' _modulestyle='79' _moduleid='4211' class='form form4211 formStyle79' style='position:absolute;top:972px;left:126px;width:731px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4211'>< class='floatImg floatImg_J floatImg_J_special'> < class='floatImgWrap'>< class='forMargin'> < id='module4212' _modulestyle='86' _moduleid='4212' class='form form4212 formStyle86 siteEditor ' style='position:absolute;top:1514px;left:65px;width:775px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4212'>< class='fk-editor simpleText fk-editor-break-word '>再比较一下轮齿摩擦损耗:优化后摩擦损耗减小大约 1.15 KW ,齿轮传动效率从原98.737 % 提高到99.395 %. (图 3) < id='module4213' _modulestyle='86' _moduleid='4213' class='form form4213 formStyle86 siteEditor ' style='position:absolute;top:1899px;left:75px;width:738px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4213'>< class='fk-editor simpleText fk-editor-break-word '>途径2 借用TBK中的草案计算功能。在原设计的基础上在草案计算中输入如图4参数 < id='module4214' _modulestyle='79' _moduleid='4214' class='form form4214 formStyle79' style='position:absolute;top:1576px;left:132px;width:339px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4214'>< class='floatImg floatImg_J floatImg_J_special'> < class='floatImgWrap'>< class='forMargin'> < id='module4215' _modulestyle='79' _moduleid='4215' class='form form4215 formStyle79' style='position:absolute;top:1576px;left:514px;width:337px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4215'>< class='floatImg floatImg_J floatImg_J_special'> < class='floatImgWrap'>< class='forMargin'> < id='module4216' _modulestyle='79' _moduleid='4216' class='form form4216 formStyle79' style='position:absolute;top:1946px;left:174px;width:581px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4216'>< class='floatImg floatImg_J floatImg_J_special'> < class='floatImgWrap'>< class='forMargin'> < id='module4217' _modulestyle='86' _moduleid='4217' class='form form4217 formStyle86 siteEditor ' style='position:absolute;top:2348px;left:75px;width:371px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4217'>< class='fk-editor simpleText fk-editor-break-word '>草案计算输出以下方案(图5): < id='module4218' _modulestyle='79' _moduleid='4218' class='form form4218 formStyle79' style='position:absolute;top:2396px;left:151px;width:653px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4218'>< class='floatImg floatImg_J floatImg_J_special'> < class='floatImgWrap'>< class='forMargin'> < id='module4219' _modulestyle='86' _moduleid='4219' class='form form4219 formStyle86 siteEditor ' style='position:absolute;top:2797px;left:86px;width:641px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4219'>< class='fk-editor simpleText fk-editor-break-word '>这里选择一个工作中心距和齿宽最接近原设计的方案。选择该方案,稍作改动,达到图6计算结果。 < id='module4220' _modulestyle='79' _moduleid='4220' class='form form4220 formStyle79' style='position:absolute;top:2844px;left:151px;width:655px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4220'>< class='floatImg floatImg_J floatImg_J_special'> < class='floatImgWrap'>< class='forMargin'> < id='module4221' _modulestyle='86' _moduleid='4221' class='form form4221 formStyle86 siteEditor ' style='position:absolute;top:3293px;left:75px;width:863px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4221'>< class='fk-editor simpleText fk-editor-break-word '>这里也可以看到法向模数变小。法向模数mn = 3.75 mm 稍稍大于途径1手动优化法向模数值3.5。齿宽和工作中心距和途径1相同。齿轮1的齿面安全系数值1.082 低于途径1,胶合安全系数(积分温度) 值1.939也是如此,而胶合安全系数(闪温)值 4.314则稍稍提高。轮齿摩擦损耗值1,1498 KW稍高于路径1 ,但比原设计小大约 1.06 KW。 齿轮传动效率值为99.343 % (图 7)比途径1虽小,但差别微乎其微。 < id='module4222' _modulestyle='79' _moduleid='4222' class='form form4222 formStyle79' style='position:absolute;top:3388px;left:140px;width:675px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4222'>< class='floatImg floatImg_J floatImg_J_special'> < class='floatImgWrap'>< class='forMargin'> < id='module4225' _modulestyle='86' _moduleid='4225' class='form form4225 formStyle86 siteEditor ' style='position:absolute;top:3894px;left:75px;width:725px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4225'>< class='fk-editor simpleText fk-editor-break-word '>以上看出,使用TBK圆柱齿轮副模块可以通过两种不同途径在很短时间内改善齿轮设计。 < id='module4269' _modulestyle='86' _moduleid='4269' class='form form4269 formStyle86 siteEditor ' style='position:absolute;top:1483px;left:417px;width:315px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4269'>< class='fk-editor simpleText '>图 2 < id='module4270' _modulestyle='86' _moduleid='4270' class='form form4270 formStyle86 siteEditor ' style='position:absolute;top:1864px;left:417px;width:315px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4270'>< class='fk-editor simpleText '>图 3 < id='module4271' _modulestyle='86' _moduleid='4271' class='form form4271 formStyle86 siteEditor ' style='position:absolute;top:2328px;left:414px;width:315px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4271'>< class='fk-editor simpleText '>图 4 < id='module4272' _modulestyle='86' _moduleid='4272' class='form form4272 formStyle86 siteEditor ' style='position:absolute;top:3262px;left:417px;width:315px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4272'>< class='fk-editor simpleText '>图 6 < id='module4273' _modulestyle='86' _moduleid='4273' class='form form4273 formStyle86 siteEditor ' style='position:absolute;top:2768px;left:417px;width:315px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4273'>< class='fk-editor simpleText '>图 5 < id='module4274' _modulestyle='86' _moduleid='4274' class='form form4274 formStyle86 siteEditor ' style='position:absolute;top:3858px;left:417px;width:315px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4274'>< class='fk-editor simpleText '>图 7 < id="formTabCntId4224" styleId="87" class="item tab_item formTabCntId">< id='module4224' _modulestyle='87' _moduleid='4224' class='form form4224 formStyle87 formInTab fk-formPack ' _createFrom='1' style='' _side='0' > < class='formBanner formBanner4224 f-packFormBanner J_packFormBanner ' style=''> < class='left left4224'> < class='center center4224' valign='top'> < class='formBannerTitle formBannerTitle4224'> < class='titleCenter titleCenter4224' valign='top'> < class='titleText titleText4224'>系统化设计 < class='right right4224'> < class='J_packContent f-packContent f-packContent4224 elemZone elemZoneModule' id='fk-packContent4224'>< class='fk-elemZoneBg J_zoneContentBg elemZoneBg f-packContentBg f-packContentBg4224'> < id='module4223' _modulestyle='86' _moduleid='4223' class='form form4223 formStyle86 siteEditor ' style='position:absolute;top:44px;left:59px;width:521px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4223'>< class='fk-editor simpleText fk-editor-break-word '>以起升机构传动装置举例演示系统化设计的优点 < id='module4226' _modulestyle='86' _moduleid='4226' class='form form4226 formStyle86 siteEditor ' style='position:absolute;top:95px;left:59px;width:873px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4226'>< class='fk-editor simpleText fk-editor-break-word '>齿轮传动装置因其应用及装配需要有时相当复杂。在安全要求特别高的应用中,每个零部件的安全可靠性计算尤其重要。该案例以浇注液体金属吊车起升机构的齿轮传动装置为例对照比较 TBK SystemManager“ 系统化设计和TBK零部件设计这两种方法。吊车起升机构的齿轮传动装置为圆柱齿轮和行星齿轮混合轮系,如图1: < id='module4227' _modulestyle='79' _moduleid='4227' class='form form4227 formStyle79' style='position:absolute;top:203px;left:144px;width:693px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4227'>< class='floatImg floatImg_J floatImg_J_special'> < class='floatImgWrap'>< class='forMargin'> < id='module4228' _modulestyle='86' _moduleid='4228' class='form form4228 formStyle86 siteEditor ' style='position:absolute;top:520px;left:350px;width:297px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4228'>< class='fk-editor simpleText fk-editor-break-word '>图 1: 起升机构齿轮传动装置 Hueber GmbH < id='module4229' _modulestyle='86' _moduleid='4229' class='form form4229 formStyle86 siteEditor ' style='position:absolute;top:577px;left:59px;width:873px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4229'>< class='fk-editor simpleText fk-editor-break-word '>两种设计方法– 用TBK零部件设计模块分别设计单个零部件以及用TBK SystemManager 系统设计,其复杂程度见下表: < id='module4230' _modulestyle='86' _moduleid='4230' class='form form4230 formStyle86 siteEditor ' style='position:absolute;top:637px;left:59px;width:533px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4230'>< class='fk-editor simpleText fk-editor-break-word '>零部件计算
轴、齿轮、轴承的几何参数
定义载荷方向和转向
计算每零部件的承载
三维图示做检测
< id='module4231' _modulestyle='86' _moduleid='4231' class='form form4231 formStyle86 siteEditor ' style='position:absolute;top:637px;left:487px;width:273px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4231'>< class='fk-editor simpleText fk-editor-break-word '>系统计算 轴、齿轮、轴承的几何参数 定义系统功率流及外载荷 各零部件定位 < id='module4232' _modulestyle='86' _moduleid='4232' class='form form4232 formStyle86 siteEditor ' style='position:absolute;top:820px;left:55px;width:785px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4232'>< class='fk-editor simpleText fk-editor-break-word '>系统设计中行星传动建模为同心轴系统(图2)。这里行星架为简单的旋转对称构件。在后续进一步计算中可以将它作为3维弹性构件(FEM网格模型)从CAD软件中读取或者用参数法建模。 < id='module4233' _modulestyle='79' _moduleid='4233' class='form form4233 formStyle79' style='position:absolute;top:910px;left:59px;width:842px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4233'>< class='floatImg floatImg_J floatImg_J_special'> < class='floatImgWrap'>< class='forMargin'> < id='module4234' _modulestyle='86' _moduleid='4234' class='form form4234 formStyle86 siteEditor ' style='position:absolute;top:1294px;left:400px;width:205px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4234'>< class='fk-editor simpleText fk-editor-break-word '>图2: 行星轮系作为同心轴系统 < id='module4235' _modulestyle='79' _moduleid='4235' class='form form4235 formStyle79' style='position:absolute;top:1347px;left:66px;width:809px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4235'>< class='floatImg floatImg_J floatImg_J_special'> < class='floatImgWrap'>< class='forMargin'> < id='module4238' _modulestyle='86' _moduleid='4238' class='form form4238 formStyle86 siteEditor ' style='position:absolute;top:1809px;left:389px;width:162px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4238'>< class='fk-editor simpleText fk-editor-break-word '>图3: 行星轮系三维模型 < id='module4239' _modulestyle='86' _moduleid='4239' class='form form4239 formStyle86 siteEditor ' style='position:absolute;top:1887px;left:62px;width:811px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4239'>< class='fk-editor simpleText fk-editor-break-word '>轴的定位:可以通过输入定位参数,其余参数因须满足齿轮副匹配要求由软件自动计算得出;或者通过定义系统中各齿轮副匹配情况由软件自动计算得出。该例子采用后面一种定位方式。
另外,需要输入转速和扭矩边界条件:已知2个输入转速n1、 n2 以及4个扭矩Tin1、Tin2、Tout1、Tout2。其他两个输入扭矩作为反作用扭矩由系统计算得出(图4)。
< id='module4240' _modulestyle='79' _moduleid='4240' class='form form4240 formStyle79' style='position:absolute;top:2036px;left:62px;width:813px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4240'>< class='floatImg floatImg_J floatImg_J_special'> < class='floatImgWrap'>< class='forMargin'> < id='module4241' _modulestyle='86' _moduleid='4241' class='form form4241 formStyle86 siteEditor ' style='position:absolute;top:2492px;left:372px;width:193px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4241'>< class='fk-editor simpleText fk-editor-break-word '>图4: 2个输入转速和4个扭矩 < id='module4242' _modulestyle='86' _moduleid='4242' class='form form4242 formStyle86 siteEditor ' style='position:absolute;top:2541px;left:62px;width:813px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4242'>< class='fk-editor simpleText fk-editor-break-word '>用系统载荷谱可考虑系统变动载荷。如这里的4电动机及2电动机运行模式。即使无各载荷情况的工作频率,也可以借用系统载荷谱这个功能来进行各载荷情况 (图 5)下系统设计及校核计算。 < id='module4243' _modulestyle='79' _moduleid='4243' class='form form4243 formStyle79' style='position:absolute;top:2619px;left:162px;width:620px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4243'>< class='floatImg floatImg_J floatImg_J_special'> < class='floatImgWrap'>< class='forMargin'> < id='module4244' _modulestyle='86' _moduleid='4244' class='form form4244 formStyle86 siteEditor ' style='position:absolute;top:3115px;left:427px;width:121px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4244'>< class='fk-editor simpleText fk-editor-break-word '>图5: 载荷谱设置 < id='module4245' _modulestyle='86' _moduleid='4245' class='form form4245 formStyle86 siteEditor ' style='position:absolute;top:3179px;left:74px;width:805px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4245'>< class='fk-editor simpleText fk-editor-break-word '>对比TBK零部件设计和TBK SystemManager系统化设计:前者有38个设计文件,其中包括滚动轴承(14)、轴(12)及齿轮(12),而后者仅有一个文件。
考虑变载荷时,TBK零部件设计针对每载荷情况需要改变或者更新38个设计文件。而TBK SystemManager系统化设计只需要在一个设计文件中改变4个扭矩和2个转速,或者仅需要在载荷谱中切换载荷设置。
如果每个计算需要3分钟计算时间,那么每种载荷需要114分钟,即大约2个小时。而系统
计算仅需要10到20秒钟。理论上,3个变载TBK零部件计算就需要6个小时。实践中,每载荷计算时间大约为6到9个小时。也就是说3个载荷总计算时间为22.5个小时。而系统化计算仅需要 0.5到1 分钟。
此外,TBK零部件计算和系统化计算结果局部有差异。也就是说,额外发现TBK零部件设计中的中间轴转向正负号有误,这稍稍影响滚动轴承的寿命。其次,一根主动轴超静定支承时,滚动轴承的静态安全系数存在13%差异,而某轴段无限寿命有26% 差异。这些差异由计算时是否考虑滚动轴承的刚性/弹性导致。TBK SystemManager 自动采用滚动轴承非线性刚性计算。而TBK零部件计算中不考虑这一点,视轴承为刚性,即无限度刚性支承。
以起升机构齿轮传动装置为例很好地展示了TBK SystemManager系统设计有以下强大优势:
开发时间超大幅度缩短!
系统设计从一开始的工程初步设计和项目报价阶段,一直到后续的项目实施过程的工
程详细设计、优化设计贯通使用
所有的几何信息存储在一个文件中,提高了概览性,避免出错
只需要定义输入输出的转速和扭矩,其他参数计算得出,除了节约时间外,也减少了
错源
不需要从一个计算人工传递中间值到下一个计算
轴、齿轮和滚动轴承的强度校核计算(凭证)在一个计算报告文件中
概览整个系统计算结果,危险(临界)零部件可很快确定
整个系统用三维图像演示,快速检测输入数据是否正确
因为TBK SystemManager 后台为带非线性联结件(齿轮)的多轴FEM-系统,允许作进一步的系统计算和详细优化,如计算整个系统的固有频率或者进行齿面修形的优化.....
< id="formTabCntId4237" styleId="87" class="item tab_item formTabCntId">< id='module4237' _modulestyle='87' _moduleid='4237' class='form form4237 formStyle87 formInTab fk-formPack ' _createFrom='1' style='' _side='0' > < class='formBanner formBanner4237 f-packFormBanner J_packFormBanner ' style=''> < class='left left4237'> < class='center center4237' valign='top'> < class='formBannerTitle formBannerTitle4237'> < class='titleCenter titleCenter4237' valign='top'> < class='titleText titleText4237'>系统计算(考虑箱体外壳) < class='right right4237'> < class='J_packContent f-packContent f-packContent4237 elemZone elemZoneModule' id='fk-packContent4237'>< class='fk-elemZoneBg J_zoneContentBg elemZoneBg f-packContentBg f-packContentBg4237'> < id='module4236' _modulestyle='86' _moduleid='4236' class='form form4236 formStyle86 siteEditor ' style='position:absolute;top:44px;left:65px;width:521px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4236'>< class='fk-editor simpleText fk-editor-break-word '>出发点 < id='module4246' _modulestyle='86' _moduleid='4246' class='form form4246 formStyle86 siteEditor ' style='position:absolute;top:90px;left:65px;width:835px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4246'>< class='fk-editor simpleText fk-editor-break-word '>为考虑外壳刚性对系统计算的影响,过去须进行额外的有限元计算求得外壳刚性矩阵,然后导入TBK SystemManager中。这不仅需要额外的FEM软件及其计算,另外也考虑到有些用户并不熟悉FEM软件的使用,TBK SystemManager于2016年集成了相应的有限元计算功能。 < id='module4247' _modulestyle='86' _moduleid='4247' class='form form4247 formStyle86 siteEditor ' style='position:absolute;top:200px;left:65px;width:200px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4247'>< class='fk-editor simpleText fk-editor-break-word '>自动网格划分 < id='module4248' _modulestyle='86' _moduleid='4248' class='form form4248 formStyle86 siteEditor ' style='position:absolute;top:257px;left:65px;width:846px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4248'>< class='fk-editor simpleText fk-editor-break-word '>这个功能允许三维外壳可直接以STEP或者IGES格式导入,三维零部件自动网格划分,生成简化的刚度矩阵。从此,用户在分析齿面接触或者计算多轴系统固有频率时,可以非常方便地分析外壳刚度的影响。除了STEP或者IGES外,系统还可以导入Nastran网格。 < id='module4249' _modulestyle='79' _moduleid='4249' class='form form4249 formStyle79' style='position:absolute;top:345px;left:65px;width:393px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4249'>< class='floatImg floatImg_J floatImg_J_special'> < class='floatImgWrap'>< class='forMargin'> < id='module4250' _modulestyle='79' _moduleid='4250' class='form form4250 formStyle79' style='position:absolute;top:366px;left:492px;width:375px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4250'>< class='floatImg floatImg_J floatImg_J_special'> < class='floatImgWrap'>< class='forMargin'> < id='module4251' _modulestyle='86' _moduleid='4251' class='form form4251 formStyle86 siteEditor ' style='position:absolute;top:673px;left:163px;width:677px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4251'>< class='fk-editor simpleText fk-editor-break-word '>图 1: 带外壳4级圆柱齿轮箱; 右边为齿轮箱外壳自动网格划分(图片由RPT Tech GmbH公司友好提供) < id='module4252' _modulestyle='86' _moduleid='4252' class='form form4252 formStyle86 siteEditor ' style='position:absolute;top:727px;left:65px;width:827px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4252'>< class='fk-editor simpleText fk-editor-break-word '>基于一个新的优化网格划分方法,非常复杂的几何件也可以顺利地进行网格划分,如下图某商用车辆齿轮传动系统的外壳所示 (图 2)。 < id='module4253' _modulestyle='79' _moduleid='4253' class='form form4253 formStyle79' style='position:absolute;top:824px;left:90px;width:303px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4253'>< class='floatImg floatImg_J floatImg_J_special'> < class='floatImgWrap'>< class='forMargin'> < id='module4254' _modulestyle='79' _moduleid='4254' class='form form4254 formStyle79' style='position:absolute;top:827px;left:496px;width:362px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4254'>< class='floatImg floatImg_J floatImg_J_special'> < class='floatImgWrap'>< class='forMargin'> < id='module4255' _modulestyle='86' _moduleid='4255' class='form form4255 formStyle86 siteEditor ' style='position:absolute;top:1117px;left:169px;width:637px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4255'>< class='fk-editor simpleText fk-editor-break-word '>图 2: 商用车辆齿轮传动系统外壳自动网格划分(图片由Oberaigner Powertrain GmbH友好提供) < id='module4256' _modulestyle='86' _moduleid='4256' class='form form4256 formStyle86 siteEditor ' style='position:absolute;top:1172px;left:65px;width:200px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4256'>< class='fk-editor simpleText fk-editor-break-word '>三维弹性零部件 < id='module4257' _modulestyle='86' _moduleid='4257' class='form form4257 formStyle86 siteEditor ' style='position:absolute;top:1224px;left:65px;width:887px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4257'>< class='fk-editor simpleText fk-editor-break-word '>TBK SystemManager 中的该功能称为三维弹性零部件 — 类似有限元三维零部件计算 —集成到系统计算中。从而使得几何形状复杂、非旋转对称零部件的刚度以及变形和其他零部件一起,直接在一个系统中予以考虑。2017年初TBK SystemManager 中的三维弹性零部件功能进一步得到拓展。三维弹性零部件现在不仅可用于静态分析计算,而且通过模态简化用于计算固有频率。弹性外壳对系统固有频率的影响远远大于其对静态变形的影响。
如图所示L-型主轴试验台,无后面主轴支承以及不考虑外壳刚度其一阶固有频率为大约为22'000 1/min。考虑外壳刚度影响,其一阶固有频率为弯曲固有频率,其值为 15'200 1/min, 这在主轴工作转速15'000 1/min 会出现问题。考虑后面的支承,弯曲固有频率提高到25'000 1/min,一阶轴向固有频率减小至19'600 1/min。导入的CAD模型为加工用的CAD模型。虽然因为有很多钻孔并不理想,但依然可以使用(见图3)。 去掉CAD模型中的钻孔,可相应节约内存和缩短最初计算时间。
< id='module4258' _modulestyle='79' _moduleid='4258' class='form form4258 formStyle79' style='position:absolute;top:1469px;left:179px;width:642px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4258'>< class='floatImg floatImg_J floatImg_J_special'> < class='floatImgWrap'>< class='forMargin'> < id='module4259' _modulestyle='86' _moduleid='4259' class='form form4259 formStyle86 siteEditor ' style='position:absolute;top:1928px;left:453px;width:111px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4259'>< class='fk-editor simpleText fk-editor-break-word '>图3: 主轴试验台 < id="formTabCntId4261" styleId="87" class="item tab_item formTabCntId">< id='module4261' _modulestyle='87' _moduleid='4261' class='form form4261 formStyle87 formInTab fk-formPack ' _createFrom='1' style='' _side='0' > < class='formBanner formBanner4261 f-packFormBanner J_packFormBanner ' style=''> < class='left left4261'> < class='center center4261' valign='top'> < class='formBannerTitle formBannerTitle4261'> < class='titleCenter titleCenter4261' valign='top'> < class='titleText titleText4261'>齿面螺旋线优化 < class='right right4261'> < class='J_packContent f-packContent f-packContent4261 elemZone elemZoneModule' id='fk-packContent4261'>< class='fk-elemZoneBg J_zoneContentBg elemZoneBg f-packContentBg f-packContentBg4261'> < id='module4260' _modulestyle='86' _moduleid='4260' class='form form4260 formStyle86 siteEditor ' style='position:absolute;top:40px;left:57px;width:521px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4260'>< class='fk-editor simpleText fk-editor-break-word '>齿面螺旋线优化 < id='module4262' _modulestyle='86' _moduleid='4262' class='form form4262 formStyle86 siteEditor ' style='position:absolute;top:89px;left:57px;width:870px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4262'>< class='fk-editor simpleText fk-editor-break-word '>一个带悬挂式小齿轮的齿轮传动装置中,出现齿面早期失效现象。用齿面螺旋线修形使得该齿轮装置达到足够使用寿命(非无限寿命设计)。原设计中小齿轮无齿面螺旋线修形。后来曾试验将小齿轮根据经验进行齿端倒坡。因这也不能带来足够好的改善,所以希望进行相应优化设计。这个任务使用TBK SystemManager来完成较好,因为在系统计算环境中考虑所有构件的变形以及轴承的刚性。 < id='module4263' _modulestyle='79' _moduleid='4263' class='form form4263 formStyle79' style='position:absolute;top:215px;left:94px;width:767px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4263'>< class='floatImg floatImg_J floatImg_J_special'> < class='floatImgWrap'>< class='forMargin'> < id='module4264' _modulestyle='86' _moduleid='4264' class='form form4264 formStyle86 siteEditor ' style='position:absolute;top:714px;left:57px;width:897px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4264'>< class='fk-editor simpleText fk-editor-break-word '>小齿轮无修形时,在最大扭矩大约20 kNm 情况下,最高线载荷为5345 N/mm。校核计算采用经验值进行齿端倒坡时,同样情况下,最高线载荷减小至4685 N/mm。在SystemManager中优化设计一个非对称鼓形修整。采用该修形,最高线载荷降低至2524 N/mm,从而达到足够寿命。 < id='module4265' _modulestyle='79' _moduleid='4265' class='form form4265 formStyle79' style='position:absolute;top:810px;left:200px;width:569px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4265'>< class='floatImg floatImg_J floatImg_J_special'> < class='floatImgWrap'>< class='forMargin'> < id='module4268' _modulestyle='86' _moduleid='4268' class='form form4268 formStyle86 siteEditor ' style='position:absolute;top:1312px;left:81px;width:880px;' _side='0' > < class='lightModuleOuterContent lightModuleOuterContent4268'>< class='fk-editor simpleText fk-editor-break-word '>最大扭矩下线载荷; 左边: 无修形; 中间: 带齿端倒坡; 右边: 非对称鼓形;下面: 螺旋线修正(小齿轮非对称修形)
考虑系统中存在的不同变形及刚性,可以诊断可能出现的双齿面接触现象,并给出提示信息。这种双齿面接触现象可以通过改变侧隙或者进行相应的螺旋线修正来消除。另外SystemManager 还集成有参数变化模拟计算功能,允许作各种各样的检测:从载荷的简单变动(大小及承载点),到扭矩变化或者轴承游隙波动直到螺旋线修正改变。
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